1859: Charles Darwin publishes the Origin of Species, one of the most pivotal moments in modern biology.The Origin of Species created evolution as a scientific principle, and it has since become accepted by virtually all scientists as a core pillar of science.
1729: Alexander Suvorov is born. Suvorov is one of the military greats, and is one of the few generals in history to never have lost a battle. Suvorov also wrote a military manual, The Science of Victory, and was the last Generalissimo of Russia.
1887: Erich von Manstein is born. Field Marshall Von Manstein is an interesting military figure; he could have been far more successful had he not been hamstrung by incompetent direction from Berlin. His plan was the undoing of France, but he was not allowed adequate forces for Operation Winter Storm, his relief of the 6th Army at Stalingrad, which he undertook against direct orders, and he was forced to wait to begin Operation Citadel, the attack on the Kursk Salient, until he had lost the element of surprise. Despite these failures which were not his fault, he commanded a skilled retreat campaign against the Red Army and directed extremely effectively earlier in the war.